Endocrine Disorders Specialty Pharmacy
Endocrine disorders are a collection of conditions affecting the function and influence of the body's endocrine system
Growth hormone (GH) abnormalities are detected by a growth hormone test, which measures the amount of human growth hormone (HGH) in the blood. GH is made by the pituitary gland and is needed for growth. It plays an important role in how the body uses food for energy (metabolism).
The amount of GH in the blood changes during the day and is affected by exercise, sleep, emotional stress, and diet. Too much GH during childhood can cause a child to grow taller than normal (gigantism).
Too little GH during childhood can cause a child to grow less than normal (dwarfism). Both conditions can be treated if found early.
Growth Hormone Deficiency (low values): Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare disorder characterized by the inadequate secretion of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain that is responsible for the production of several hormones. GHD can be present from birth (congenital), resulting from genetic mutations or from structural defects in the brain. It can also be acquired later in life as a result of trauma, infection, radiation therapy, or tumor growth within the brain. A third category has no known cause (idiopathic). Synthetic human growth hormone was developed in 1985 and approved by the FDA for specific uses in children and adults. In children, HGH injections are approved for treating short stature of unknown cause as well as poor growth due to a number of medical causes.
Growth Hormone Excess (high values): High GH values may mean gigantism or acromegaly is present. These conditions are caused by a noncancerous tumor in the pituitary gland (adenoma). Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels should also be high. High GH levels may also be caused by diabetes, kidney disease, or starvation. These conditions do not cause high IGF-1 levels.
Insulin-like Growth Factor Deficiency: Some children have growth failure, despite normal or even high levels of growth hormone (GH). In some of these children there are abnormally low levels of IGF-1 and this condition is called Primary Insulin-like Growth Factor Deficiency (PIGFD). Here the term ‘primary’ means that no secondary cause of low IGF-1 levels (e.g. a chronic medical illness) can be identified.
Central Precocious Puberty (CPP): Central precocious puberty is a condition that causes early sexual development in girls and boys. While puberty typically begins between ages and 8 and 13 in girls and 9 and 14 in boys, girls with central precocious puberty begin exhibiting signs before age 8, and boys before age 9.
Diabetes mellitus is a disorder in which the body does not produce enough or respond normally to insulin, causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to be abnormally high. There are three main types of diabetes;
Prediabetes: Prediabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are too high to be considered normal but not high enough to be labeled diabetes. People have prediabetes if their fasting blood glucose level is between 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) and 125 mg/dL (6.9 mmol/L) or if their blood glucose level 2 hours after a glucose tolerance test is between 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) and 199 mg/dL (11.0 mmol/L). Prediabetes carries a higher risk of future diabetes as well as heart disease. Decreasing body weight by 5 to 10% through diet and exercise can significantly reduce the risk of developing future diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes: In type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile-onset diabetes), the body's immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, and more than 90% of them are permanently destroyed. The pancreas, therefore, produces little or no insulin. Only about 5 to 10% of all people have type 1 disease. Most people who have type 1 diabetes develop the disease before age 30, although it can develop later in life.
Type 2 diabetes: In type 2 diabetes (formerly called non– insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes), the pancreas often continues to produce , sometimes even at higher-than-normal levels, especially early in the disease. However, the body develops resistance to the effects of insulin, so there is not enough insulin to meet the body’s needs. As type 2 diabetes progresses, the insulin-producing ability of the pancreas decreases.